Academic Qualifications | Teaching | Research | Selected Publications | Academic Service | Contact Details

Academic Qualifications

  • PhD, Radboud University Nijmegen
  • MD, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
  • Msc, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine
  • BSc, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine

Teaching (TBD)


Research Interests

  • Chinese medicine: cellular and molecular basis of immunoregulatory effect of Chinese medicine
  • Immunology: Biological and pharmacological regulation of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs)
  • Translational research: development of novel immunotherapy and Chinese medicine-derived therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and autoimmunity

From 1991 to 1998, Dr. Chen was a research physician at the Shenzhen Institute of Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine, Shenzhen Red Cross Hospital (Shenzhen 2nd People’s Hospital). In 1998, Dr. Chen decided to change his fields of research from clinically-orientated studies to fundamental laboratory research in immunology using his strong background of alternative medicines. Dr. Chen started his Post Doctoral training at the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, UK. In April of 1999, Dr. Chen joined the Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Frederick, NIH, USA, as a Visiting Fellow. In 2001, Dr. Chen became a Scientist II in the Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick. From 2011 to 2014, he was a Senior Scientist in the same group. In October of 2014, He joined the University of Macau. Now he is a Professor of Biomedical Sciences at State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China


(* Xin Chen as the corresponding author. Total citations: 2885. h-index: 31. i10-index: 41. Citation indices are updated on 20 July, 2016 from Google Scholar. Impact factor is updated from Web of Science).

  1. Xin Chen*, and Joost J Oppenheim. Paradoxical effects of anti-TNF treatment of autoimmunity. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2016. Published online: 02 September 2016 | doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.145 (IF=10.531)
  2. Xin Chen*, Yingjie Nie, Haitao Xiao, Zhaoxiang Bian, Anthony J Scarzello, Na-Young Song, Trivett L. Anna, De Yang, and Joost J Oppenheim. TNFR2 expression by CD4 effector T cells is required to induce full-fledged experimental colitis. Sci Rep. 2016 Sept 9; 6, 32834; doi: 10.1038/srep32834. *(IF=5.228)
  3. Jiang He, Zhen-dan He, Xin Chen*. Effects of Chinese medicinal components on chemokine receptors: theory, results and methodology. In: Guidebook for Scientific Research for Chinese Medicine. Springer. 2016 (In press)
  4. Catalina Lee-Chang, Monica Bodogai, KanakoMoritoh, Xin ChenRobert Wersto, Ranjan Sen, Joost Oppenheim, Howard Young, Michael Croft, Luigi Ferrucci, and Arya Biragyn.  Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers. Journal of Immunology 2016 Apr 15;196(8):3385-97 (IF=4.985)
  5. B Zaragoza, Xin Chen, JJ Oppenheim, D Chader, M Miyara and BL Salomon. Suppressive activity of human Treg cells is maintained in the presence of TNF. Nature Medicine. 2016 Jan 22:16-17 (IF=30.357, citation=3)
  6. X.M. Geng, X.J. Kong, H. Hu, J.Y. Chen, F.Q. Yang, H.Y. Liang, X. Chen, Y.J. Hu, Research and development of therapeutic mAbs: an analysis based on pipeline projects, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2015 Dec 2;11(12):2769-76 (IF=2.145)
  7. Chen, X. P. , Tang, Zh., Shi, Zh., Lu, J. , Su, H. X. , Chen, X., Wang, Y. T. Current topics on cancer biology and research strategies for anticancer traditional Chinese medicine. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 2015, 40(17):3416-3422.
  8. Fan Yan, Ruijuan Du, Feng Wei, Hua Zhao, Jingpu Yu, Changli Wang, Zhongli Zhan, TingTing Ding, Xiubao Ren, Xin Chen*, Hui Li. Expression of TNFR2 by regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood is correlated to the clinicopathology of lung cancer patients. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2015 Nov;64(11):1475-85. (IF=4.846, citation=4)
  9. Teizo Yoshimura, Mingyong Liu, Xin Chen, Liangzhu Li, Ji Ming Wang. Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Macrophages in Stroma Renders Tumor Cells as the Primary Source of MCP-1/CCL2 in Lewis Lung Carcinoma. Frontiers in Immunology. 2015 Jun 26;6:332 (IF=5.695, citation=4).
  10. Ryoko Hamano, Xueqiang Wu, Yitao Wang, Joost J Oppenheim and Xin Chen*.  Characterization of MT-2 cells as a human regulatory T cell-like cell line. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2015 Nov;12(6):780-2. (IF=5.193, citation=1)
  11. Xin Chen*, Jami Willette-Brown, Xueqiang Wu, Ya Hu, O.M. Zack Howard, Yinling Hu and Joost J Oppenheim. IKKα is required for the homeostasis of regulatory T cells and for the expansion of both regulatory and effector CD4 T cells. FASEB J. 2015, Feb;29(2):443-54.  (IF=5.299, citation=7)
  12. Jonathan M. Weiss, Jeff J. Subleski, Tim Back, Xin Chen, Stephanie K. Watkins, Youfeng Yang, Hideo Yagita, Thomas J. Sayers, W. Marston Linehan, William J. Murphy, and Robert H. Wiltrout. Regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment undergo Fas-dependent cell death during IL-2/CD40 therapy. Journal of Immunology. 2014, Jun 15; 192(12):5821-19 (IF=4.985, citation=13)
  13. Feng Wei, De Yang, Poonam Tewary, Yana Li, Sandra Li, Xin Chen, O. M. Zack Howard, Michael Bustin, Joost J. Oppenheim. The alarmin high-mobility group nucleosome-binding 1 protein contributes to the induction of anti-tumor immunity and is a potent immunoadjuvant. Cancer Research. 2014, 74(21):5989-98. (JCR zone 1, IF=8.556, citation=11)
  14. Xin Chen*, Lalage M. Wakefield and Joost J. Oppenheim. Synergistic anti-tumor effect of a TGFβ inhibitor and cyclophosphamide. Oncoimmunology. 2014, 3(1): e28247.  (JCR zone 2, IF=7.644, citation=4)
  1. Xin Chen*., Joost .J. Oppenheim. Th17 cells and Treg cells: unlikely allies. Journal of LeukocyteBiology 2014 May; 95(5): 723-731. (IF=4.165, citation=31)
  2. Ya Hu, Haitao Xiao, Tingchen Shi, Joost J Oppenheim and Xin Chen*. Progranulin promotes TNF-induced proliferation of suppressive mouse CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Immunology. 2014 Jun;142(2):193-201. (IF=4.078, citation=10)
  3. Xin Chen*, Yuan Yang, Qiong Zhou, Jonathan M. Weiss, O.M. Zack Howard, John M. McPherson, Lalage M. Wakefield and Joost J. Oppenheim. Effective chemoimmunotherapy with anti-TGFβ antibody and cyclophosphamide in a mouse model of breast cancer. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 9;9(1):e85398. (IF=3.057, citation=13)
  4. Qiong Zhou, Ya Hu, O.M. Zack Howard, Joost J. Oppenheim and Xin Chen*. Th17 cells by producing TNF and IL-2 support the expansion and phenotypic stability of CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells in vivo. Cytokine. 2014, 65(1):56-64. (IF=2.94, citation=10)
  5. Xin Chen*, Xueqiang Wu, Qiong Zhou, OM Zack Howard, Mihai G Netea and Joost J.  Oppenheim. TNFR2 is critical for the stabilization of the CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cell phenotype in the inflammatory environment. Journal of Immunology. 2013 (3); 1076-84. (IF=4.985, citation=70)
  6. Griessl S, Xin Chen, Oppenheim J, Maennel D. THE DUAL ROLE OF TNF ON T CELL ACTIVATION. In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Volume 691. Berlin: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN; 2011:692-693. (IF=1.958)
  7. Xin Chen*, Oppenheim JJ:  Resolving the identity myth: Key markers of functional CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (review). International Immunopharmacology. 2011; 11: 1489-96. (IF=2.551, citation=40)
  8. Xin Chen*, Oppenheim JJ:  The phenotypic and functional consequences of TNFR2 expression on CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (review). Immunology. 2011 Aug;133(4):426-33. (IF=4.078, citation=31)
  9. Xin Chen*, JJ Oppenheim:  Comment on "Interplay between TNF and Regulatory T Cells in a TNF-Driven Murine Model of Arthritis".  Journal of Immunology. 2011; 187: 1527. (IF=4.985)
  10. Xin Chen, Joost J Oppenheim. Contrasting effects of TNF and anti-TNF on the activation of effector T cells and regulatory T cells in autoimmunity (review). FEBS letters. 2011 Dec; 585(23): 3611-3618. (IF=3.519, citation=49)
  11. Ryoko Hamano, Jiaqiang Huang , Teizo Yoshimura, Joost J. Oppenheim, and Xin Chen*. TNF optimally activatives regulatory T cells by inducing TNF receptor superfamily members TNFR2, 4-1BB and OX40. European Journal of Immunology. 2011 Jul;41(7):2010-20. (IF=4.179, citation=35)
  12. Chertov O, Zhang N, Xin Chen, Oppenheim JJ, Lubkowski J, McGrath C, Sowder RC, Crise BJ, Malyguine A, Kutzler MA, Steele AD, Henderson EE, Rogers TJ. Novel Peptides Based on HIV-1 gp120 Sequence with Homology to Chemokines Inhibit HIV Infection in Cell Culture. PLoS ONE. 6: e14474, 2011. (IF=3.057, citation=3)
  13. Xin Chen*. Maturation and activation of dendritic cells by botanicals used in traditional Chinese medicine: role in immune enhancement. Dietary Components and Immune Function- Prevention and Treatment of Disease and Cancer. Ronald Ross Watson, ed. Humana Press, 2010, 497-514.
  14. Xin Chen*, Ryoko Hamano, Jeffrey J. Subleski, Arthur A. Hurwitz, O.M.Zack Howard and Joost J. Oppenheim. Expression of co-stimulatory TNFR2 induces resistance of CD4+FoxP3+ conventional T cells to suppression by CD4+FoxP3+T regulatory cells Journal of Immunology. 2010; Jul 1;185(1):174-82. (IF=4.985, citation=41)
  15. Xin Chen*, Joost J Oppenheim. TNF-alpha: An Activator of CD4+FoxP3+TNFR2+ Regulatory T Cells (review). Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2010; 11:119-134. (citation=62)
  16. Xin Chen*., J. J. Subleski, R. Hamano, O. M. Howard, R. H. Wiltrout, and J. J. Oppenheim. Co-expression of TNFR2 and CD25 identifies more of the functional CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human peripheral blood. European Journal of Immunology. 2010; 40:1099-1106. (IF=4.179, citation=79)
  17. Xin Chen*, Joost J Oppenheim. Regulatory T cells, Th17 cells and TLRs: implication for autoimmunity and cancer (review). Pathways. 2009;10:2-5.
  18. Weiss, J. M., T. C. Back, A. J. Scarzello, J. J. Subleski, V. L. Hall, J. K. Stauffer, Xin Chen, D. Micic, K. Alderson, W. J. Murphy, and R. H. Wiltrout. Successful immunotherapy with IL-2/anti-CD40 induces the chemokine-mediated mitigation of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106:19455-19460. (IF=9.423, citation=45)
  19. Xin Chen*., J. J. Subleski, K. Heather, O. M. Howard, D. N. Mannel, and J. J. Oppenheim. Cutting Edge: Expression of TNFR2 Defines a Maximally Suppressive Subset of Mouse CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Cells: Applicability to Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells. Journal of Immunology. 2008;180:6467-6471. (IF=4.985, citation=129)
  20. Xin Chen*, Wu H. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Chemokine. In Advances in Cancer Research in China: the Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Cancer. Ling HS, ed. Beijing University Medical Press. Beijing. Aug. 2008. 98-110.
  21. Mazzucchelli, R., J. A. Hixon, R. Spolski, Xin Chen, W. Q. Li, V. L. Hall, J. Willette-Brown, A. A. Hurwitz, W. J. Leonard, and S. K. Durum. Development of regulatory T cells requires IL-7Ralpha stimulation by IL-7 or TSLP. Blood. 2008; 112:3283-3292. (IF=11.841, citation=104)
  22. Heather Kopf, Gonzalo M. de la Rosa, O.M.Zack Howard and Xin Chen*. Rapamycin inhibits differentiation of Th17 cells and promotes generation of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. International Immunopharmacology. 2007; 7(13): 1819-1824. (IF=2.551, citation=163)
  23. Murakami T, Xin Chen, Hase K, Sakamoto A, Nishigaki C, Ohno H. Splenic CD19-CD35+B220+ cells function as an inducer of follicular dendritic cell network formation. Blood. 2007;110:1215-1224. (IF=11.841, citation=19)
  24. Kim JY, Kim HJ, Hurt EM, Xin Chen, Howard OM, Farrar WL. Functional and genomic analyses of FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells as regulatory T (Treg)-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:44-50(IF=2.371, citation=19)
  25. Xin Chen *, O.M.Zack Howard, Joost J. Oppenheim. Pertussis toxin (PTx) by inducing IL-6 promotes the generation of IL-17-producing CD4 cells. Journal of Immunology, 2007, 178(10):6123-9. (IF=4.985, citation=84)
  26. Xin Chen *, Monika Bäumel, Daniela N. Männel, O.M.Zack Howard, Joost J. Oppenheim. Interaction of TNF with TNF Receptor Type 2 Promotes the Expansion and Function of Mouse CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells. Journal of Immunology, 2007, 179 (1): 154-61. (IF=4.985, citation=256)
  27. Xin Chen *, Lu Yang, O.M.Zack Howard, Joost J. Oppenheim. Dendritic cells as a pharmacological target of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006, Dec;3(6):401-10. (IF=5.193, citation=21)
  28. Xin Chen*, Joost J. Oppenheim, Robin T. Winkler-Pickett, John R. Ortaldo, O.M.Zack Howard. Glucocorticoid amplifies IL-2-dependent expansion of functional FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells in vivo and enhances their capacity to suppress EAE.  European Journal of Immunology, 2006 Aug; 36(8):2139-2149. (IF=4.179, citation=164)
  29. Xin Chen*, Robin T. Winkler-Pickett, Carbonetti, NH, John R. Ortaldo, Joost J. Oppenheim, O.M.Zack Howard. Pertussis Toxin as an Adjuvant Suppresses the Number and Function of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory Cells. European Journal of Immunology, 2006 Feb 14;36(3):671-680. (IF=4.179, citation=94)
  30. Xin Chen*, Takaya Murakami, Joost J. Oppenheim, O.M.Zack Howard. Triptolide, a constituent of immunosuppressive Chinese herbal medicine, potently suppresses differentiation, maturation and migration of dendritic cells. Blood. 2005, 106(7): 2409-2416. (IF=11.841, citation=51)
  31. Xin Chen*, Joost. Oppenheim and O.M.Zack Howard. BALB/c mice have more CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and show greater susceptibility to suppression of their CD4+CD25- responder T cells than C57bl/6 mice. Journal of Leukocyte Biology.2005, 78 (1): 114-21. (IF=4.289, citation=96)
  32. Teresa Krakauera, Xin Chen, O.M. Zack Howard, Howard A. Young. Triptolide attenuates endotoxin- and staphylococcal exotoxin-induced production of cytokines and chemokines and T-cell proliferation. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 2005, 27(1): 53-66. (IF=1.617, citation=46)
  33. Zack Howard, Hui Fang Dong, Shao Bo Su, Rachel R. Caspi, Xin Chen, Paul Plotz, Joost J. Oppenheim. Autoantigens Signal Through Chemokine Receptors: Uveitis Antigens Induce CXCR3 and CXCR5 Expressing Lymphocytes and Immature Dendritic Cells to Migrate. Blood, 2005, Jun 1;105(11):4207-14. (IF=11.841, citation=47)
  34. Il Yup Chung, Hui-Fang Dong, Xia Zhang, Nahed M.A. Hassanien, Joost J. Oppenheim and Xin Chen. Effects of IL-7 and Dexamethasone: Induction of CD25, the high affinity IL-2 receptor, on CD4+ cells. Cellular Immunology. 2004 Nov-Dec;232(1-2):57-63. (IF=2.399, citation=18)
  35. Xin Chen*, Joost. Oppenheim and O.M.Zack Howard. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as novel therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA): Inhibitory effects of traditional Chinese medicinal components. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004; 1(5):336-342. (IF=5.193, citation=43)
  36. Xin Chen, Takaya Murakami, Joost J. Oppenheim, O.M.Zack Howard. Differential response of murine CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25– T cells to dexamethasone-induced cell death. European Journal of Immunology. 2004; 34(3):859-869. (IF=4.179, citation=185)
  37. Krakauer T, Xin Chen, Howard OM, Young HA. RNase protection assay for the study of the differential effects of therapeutic agents in suppressing staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2003; 214: 151-64.
  38. Xin Chen, John A. Beutler, Thomas G. McCloud, Amy Loehfelm, Lu Yang, Huifang Dong, Oleg Chertov, Rosalba Salcedo, Joost J. Oppenheim and O.M. Zack Howard. Tannic acid is an inhibitor of CXCL12 (SDF-1a)/CXCR4 with anti-angiogenic activity . Clinical Cancer Research. 2003 Aug;9(8):3115-3123. (IF=8.738, citation=65)
  39. Xin Chen. Teresa Krakauer , O.M.Zack Howard, Joost J. Oppenheim. Yin Zi Huang, an injectable multi-component Chinese herbal medicine, is a potent inhibitor of T cell activation. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2004, 10(3):519-526. (IF=1.395, citation=29)
  40. Xin Chen, Lu Yang, Ning Zhang, Jim A. Turpin, Robert W Buckheit, Clay Osterling, Joost J. Oppenheim and O.M.Zack Howard. Shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine, inhibits chemokine receptor function and suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003 Sep;47(9):2810-2816. (IF=4.415, citation=166)
  41. Teresa Krakauer, Xin Chen, O.M.Zack Howard, Howard A. Young. RNase Protection Assay for the Study of the Differential Effects of Therapeutic Agents in Suppressing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Cytokines in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. In: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 214: Superantigen Protocols. Edited: Teresa Krakauer. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ. 2002:151-164.
  42. Xin Chen*, O.M.Zack Howard, Xiaoyi Yang, Lihua Wang, Joost J. Oppenheim and Teresa Krakauer. Effects of Shuanghuanglian and Qingkailing, two multi-components Chinese herbal preparations, on human leukocyte function. Life Sciences. 2002 May 3, 70(24): 2897-2913. (IF=2.685, citation=32)
  43. Xin Chen, Richard D. Mellon, Lu Yang, HF Dong, Joost J. Oppenheim, O.M.Zack Howard. Regulatory effects of DCA, one component of anti inflammatory traditional Chinese medicine-Niuhuang, on human leukocyte response to chemoattractants. Biochemical Pharmacology.  2002 Feb 1;63(3):533-541. (IF=5.091, citation=31)
  44. Xin Chen, Lu Yang, Joost J Oppenheim and O.M.Zack Howard. Cellular pharmacological study of shikonin derivatives. Phytotherapy Research. 2002 May 15, 16(3):199-209. (IF=2.694, citation=265)
  45. Xin Chen, Joost. Oppenheim and O.M.Zack Howard. Shikonin, a component of antiinflammatory Chinese herbal medicine, selectively blocks chemokine binding to CC Chemokine Receptor-1. International Immunopharmacology. 2001, 1 (2): 229-236. (IF=2.551, citation=85)
  46. Xin Chen*, Yang Lu, Zeng Guangxian, Shen Guanxin. The regulatory action of the modified Yu Ping Feng Tang on cellular immunity in mice under amputation-induced stress. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2000 Dec;20(4):302-6. (IF=1.023)
  47. Xin Chen*, Yang D, Shen W, Dong HF, Wang JM, Oppenheim JJ, Howard MZ. Characterization of chenodeoxycholic acid as an endogenous antagonist of the G-coupled formyl peptide receptors. Inflammatory Research. 2000 Dec;49(12):744-55. (IF=2.557, citation=35)
  48. Yang, D., Q. Chen, S. Stoll, X. Chen, O. M. Howard, and J. J. Oppenheim. 2000. Differential regulation of responsiveness to fMLP and C5a upon dendritic cell maturation: correlation with receptor expression. Journal of Immunology. 2000, 165: 2694-2702. (IF=4.985, citation=68)



  • Diplomate in Acupuncture, National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM), USA.  (2003)
  • Licensed Acupuncturist. The Board of Acupuncture, the State of Maryland, USA. (Since July 2004~present, license No. U01359)

Professional membership

  • Member, Society of Leukocyte Biology

Awards & Honors

  • Outstanding Achievement Award (SAIC-Frederick, Inc. NCI-Frederick, USA, 2007)
  • US National Cancer Institute Director's Innovation Award (2010)                                   


Contact Details

Room: 7039, Building N22
State Key Lab of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine
Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences
University of Macau
Macao SAR, China

Telephone: (853) 8822 4513
Fax: (853) 2884-1358