Chester KAM, Ph.D. 甘俊生

Assistant Professor

Faculty of Education, University of Macau








Room 3008, Faculty of Education,

University of Macau, E33,

Av. da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, China

(853) 8822 8708

(853) 8822 2402



Academic Qualifications

·        Ph. D. Psychology, The University of Western Ontario, Canada, 2012

·        M. A. Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2007

·        B. A. Psychology, The University of Waterloo, Canada, 2003



Teaching Area

·        Measurement and Psychometrics

·        Multivariate Statistics



Research Area

·        Item Response Bias and Use of Reverse-Keyed Items

·        Research Methods in Education and Psychology

·        Organizational Behaviours in Educational Contexts


My research focuses mainly on two areas. In the first area, I examine construct dimensionality and the use of reverse-keyed items in survey research. Previous research shows a lack of consensus regarding the use of reverse-keyed items. Yet many researchers exclude reverse-keyed items from their surveys. My current research examines the possible consequences of this practice for construct dimensionality. My work on this line of research has been published in major methodology journals (Organizational Research Methods, Multivariate Behavioral Research, Sociological Methods and Research, and Educational and Psychological Measurement). In the second area, I study organizational behaviours in educational contexts. I have examined the role of implicit person theory and organizational commitment on employee outcomes. In addition to these research interests, I collaborate with researchers in other fields by helping with their statistical analyses.


Selected Publications

Referred Journal Articles


Construct Dimensionality and Use of Reverse-Keyed Items

·        Kam, C. C. S. (in press). Why do we still have an impoverished understanding of the item wording effect? An empirical examination. Sociological Methods and Research.

·        Kam, C. C. S. (2016). Further considerations in using items with diverse content to measure acquiescence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76, 164-174.

·        Kam, C. C. S., & Meyer, J. P. (2015). How careless responding and acquiescence response bias can influence construct dimensionality: The case of job satisfaction. Organizational Research Methods, 18, 512-541.

·        Kam, C. C. S., & Zhou, M. (2015). Does acquiescence affect individual items consistently? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 75, 764-784.

·        Kam, C., Risavy, S. D., & Perunovic, W. Q. E. (2015). Using over-claiming technique to probe social desirability ratings of personality items: A validity examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 177-181.

·        Paunonen, S., & Kam, C. (2014). The accuracy of roommate ratings of behaviors versus beliefs. Journal of Research in Personality, 52, 55-67.

·        Kam, C. (2013). Probing item social desirability by correlating personality items with Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A validity examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 513-518.

·        Kam, C., Schermer, J. A., Harris, J., & Vernon, P. A. (2013). Heritability of acquiescence bias and item keying response style associated with the HEXACO personality scale. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 790-798.

·        Kam, C., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., & Ho, M. Y. (2012). Examining the dimensionality of self-construals and individualistic-collectivistic values with random intercept item factor analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 727-733.

·        Kam, C., & Meyer, J. P. (2012). Do optimism and pessimism have different relationships with personality dimensions? A re-examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 123-127.


Organizational Behaviours

·        Kam, C., Morin, A., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2016). Are commitment profiles stable and predictable? A latent transition analysis. Journal of Management, 42, 1462-1490.

·        Kam, C., Risavy, S. D., Perunovic, W. Q. E., & Plant, L. (2014). Do subordinates formulate an impression of their manager’s implicit person theory? Applied Psychology: An International Review, 63, 267-299.


Application of Advanced Statistics in Applied Research

·        Kam, C. C., S., & Zhou, M. (2016). Is the Dark Triad better studied using a variable- or a person-centered approach? An exploratory investigation. PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0161628. (

·        Zhou, M., & Kam, C. C. S. (2016). Hope and general self-efficacy: Two measures of the same construct? Journal of Psychology, 150, 543-559.

·        Stewart, S. L., Kam, C., & Baiden, P. (2014). Predicting length of stay and readmission for psychiatric inpatient youth admitted to adult mental health beds in Ontario, Canada. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 19, 115-121.

·        Teo, T., & Kam, C. (2014). A measurement invariance analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) on two different cultures. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32, 762-767.

·        Teo, T., & Kam, C. (2014). Validity of the Internet Addiction Test for Adolescents and Older Children (IAT-A): Tests of measurement invariance and latent mean differences. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32, 624-637.

·        Ho, M. Y., Cheung, F. M., You, J., Kam, C., Zhang, X., & Kliewer, W. (2013). The moderating role of personality in the relationship between exposure to violence and psychological adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 634-639.



·        Doctoral Level: Applications of Advanced Quantitative Methods (EDUC802)

·        Master’s Level: Educational & Psychological Assessment (EDPS701 & EDSC702)

·        Master’s Level: Quantitative Research in Education (EDUC752)